FAQs for SmartEnzymes

 
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Antibody Digestion


FabRICATOR®

The protocol for FabRICATOR MagIC is based on using standard PBS pH 7.4 as digestion buffer. FabRICATOR in solution is compatible with most commonly used buffers at pH=6-8 and the same buffers should work for FabRICATOR MagIC, but the incubation time might need to be optimized.

Yes, it is possible to digest the antibody in the first dimension and then separate the subunits in the second dimension. Please see the application note for detailed instructions.

The FabRICATOR HPLC can run >400 samples of 10 ug of IgG.

We have tested PBS and 150 mM ammonium acetate, pH7 with good results. More buffers were found to be compatible with FabRICATOR digestion in solution (more info) and should be suitable for FabRICATOR HPLC as well. However, the ionic strength of the buffer influences retention of the antibody fragments on the FabRICATOR HPLC column and a minimum of 100-150 mM salt is necessary for IgG1 subunits to elute as a single, narrow peak. Other IgG subclasses or fusion proteins might need some optimization of buffer composition.

FabRICATOR HPLC is an HPLC column with the FabRICATOR (IdeS) protease immobilized on a HPLC compatible matrix for automated antibody subunit generation.

FabRICATOR Fab2 Kit digests rabbit IgG but to capture the Fc fragments in the affinity step you need another resin than the CaptureSelect™ Fc normally included in the kit. Please contact the Genovis team if you are interested in processing rabbit IgG and we will provide columns with resin compatible with rabbit Fc in the FabRICATOR Fab2 Kit.

The FabRICATOR MagIC magnetic beads with immobilized FabRICATOR (IdeS) enzyme.

We have tested concentrations as low 0.025 mg/ml without any measurable effect on digestion efficiency. However, low concentration samples require a longer injection time and consequently lead to a broader elution peak from the FabRICATOR HPLC column.

FabRICATOR MagIC is suitable for using in automated systems that can handle magnetic beads. On the applications page you can read about how it’s used in a KingFisher™ workflow.

No. According to the following reference, FabRICATOR does not digest IgM. Pavel-Rammingen et al., 2002. IdeS, a novel streptococcal cysteine proteinase with unique specificity for immunoglobulin G.

Yes. FabRICATOR is compatible with EDTA. Make sure your pH is within 6-8.

We have no stability data for storage at -20°C or -70°C. However, we have customer reporting that they successfully stored reconstituted FabRICATOR at -20°C or -70°C for a couple of months. Genovis cannot guarantee the activity of the enzyme, but these storage conditions might be OK depending on the intended application.

It is possible to use FabRICATOR with low concentrations of IgG. Low concentrations of IgG will lead to decreased reaction rate, so for concentrations below 0.5mg/mL it is therefore recommended to increase the amount of added enzyme and/or increase the incubation time. There is no risk of over-digestion and the incubation time can be prolonged to O/N if necessary.

If we assume that the antibody concentration in serum is 15 mg/ml you would have to add 10-15 000 units to a sample of 1 ml serum. In 50 µl serum you would have to add 500 – 750 units of FabRICATOR.

Yes, PNGaseF and FabRICATOR can be used in a one-pot reaction as long as the reaction conditions follow the specifications for the FabRICATOR enzyme. It is important to have native reaction conditions for FabRICATOR to remain active.

We have tested 4-6 M GuHCl which the enzyme does not withstand without significant decrease of activity. SDS have not been evaluated but 0.1% RapiGest from waters have negative influence on activity. Taken together the enzyme does not well tolerate denaturing agents although we have not tested this in more detailed studies.

FabRICATOR is a very specific enzyme and small changes in the sequence in or around the digestion site (…CPAPELLG / GPSVF…) may reduce or completely impair the ability to digest the IgG. It is very difficult to predict the outcome for each specific modification. It might work, but we cannot guarantee it unfortunately, the only way of knowing is to perform a digestion test. Some suggestions that are worth testing if you experience incomplete digestion: Increase the incubation time, increase the amount of added enzyme, use a PBS with greatly reduced salt concentration (5-10 mM instead of 140 mM) and pH 6.5 instead of 7.4.

Yes, FabRICATOR should be able to digest a Fc fusion protein as long as you have not fused the protein too close to the cleavage site. FabRICATOR digests human IgG just below the hinge (…CPAPELLG / GPSVF…), leaving the hinge on the fusion-part.

It is possible to elute the Fc fragments from the CaptureSelect column using a low pH buffer, for example a 0.1M Glycine buffer pH=3.0. The pH must immediately after elution be adjusted to neutral pH by adding 0.1x elution volume of 1M Tris pH=8.0.

FabRICATOR is a cysteine protease. It should not result in any other modifications than the digestion of the peptide bond. Digestion will be between the two Glycines (…CPAPELLG / GPSVF…) and the C-terminus will regain the carboxyl group – that is addition of one OH-group and the N-terminal amino group will be regained (addition of one H).

In summary, R1-CO-NH-R2 + H2O –> R1-COOH + NH2-R2.

Genovis has chosen CaptureSelect in the FabRICATOR Fab2 Kit for removal of Fc fragments. CaptureSelect has a very high specific affinity for the Fc. Both protein A and MabSelect Sure (GE) may have affinity for the Fab which may result in a lower recovery of the generated F(ab’)2 fragments and the degree of affinity is antibody dependent. We have many customer reports on this subject, and they usually come back to us for the CaptureSelect columns for the above reason.

We can only guarantee optimal digestion for one-time use. We do not have a cleaning or regeneration protocol to provide. However, depending on the antibody and the following application the column can be reused. We do not recommend using with different antibodies due to the risk for contamination of carry-over from previous sample. If column reuse is desired store the column in 10-20% ethanol at +4-8°C.

Yes, for human IgG1 molecules both enzymes can be used in combination to generate a specific hinge peptide. The incubation time is significantly longer for FabALACTICA and it is recommended to first run the FabALACTICA digest and then add FabRICATOR for the last 30 min.

FabRICATOR® cleave the IgG molecule in one specific site in the lower hinge region of the anitbody leaving a F(ab’)2 fragment and a Fc-fragment.
Human IgG1:  ..CPAPELLG / GPSVF..
Human IgG2:  ..CPAPPVA / GPSVF..
Human IgG3:  ..CPAPELLG / GPSVF..
Human IgG4:  ..CPAPEFLG / GPSVF..

FabALACTICA®

We can only guarantee optimal digestion for one-time use. We do not have a cleaning or regeneration protocol to provide. However, depending on the antibody and the following application the column can be reused. We do not recommend using with different antibodies due to the risk for contamination of carry-over from previous sample. If column reuse is desired store the column in 10-20% ethanol at +4-8°C.

It is not recommended to elute the Fc fragments from the CaptureSelect column since the fraction might also include undigested or semi digested material.

No, FabALACTICA has shown very poor activity on Fc-fusion proteins.

We recommend using FabALACTICA Immobilized for digesting human IgG1 and generating a final preparation free of any residual enzyme. You can also use FabALACTICA Fab kit for digestion of human IgG1 and purification of the generated Fab fragments.

Yes, for human IgG1 molecules both enzymes can be used in combination to generate a specific hinge peptide. The incubation time is significantly longer for FabALACTICA and it is recommended to first run the FabALACTICA digest and then add FabRICATOR for the last 30 min.

FabALACTICA does not require reducing conditions as both GingisKHAN and FabULOUS does, and allows for generation of Fab fragments from native human IgG1.

FabALACTICA (IgdE) and GingisKHAN (Kgp) are both cysteine proteases that digest IgG1 above the hinge to generate intact Fab and Fc fragments. FabALACTICA is specific for human IgG1 and digests at a specific site (…KSCDKT / HTCPPCP…) with overnight incubation without the need for reducing conditions. GingisKHAN is a general protease that with the recommended reaction conditions, 1 hour with light reducing conditions, digests human IgG1 at a specific site (…KSCDK/THTCPPCP…).

FabDELLO

If you have a technical question, please contact us.

FabRICATOR® Z

Unfortunately, FabRICATOR Z does not digest rat IgG2a. If generating Fab fragments is an option, we suggest using FabULOUS enzyme that digests rat IgG2a. FabULOUS does not have a single specific cleavage site, but a primary digestion site, so there can be more than one digestion site. The digestion site(s) for rat IgG2a using FabULOUS is not determined, but the generated fragments are Fab and Fc.

We can only guarantee optimal digestion for one-time use. We do not have a cleaning or regeneration protocol to provide. However, depending on the antibody and the following application the column can be reused. We do not recommend using with different antibodies due to the risk for contamination of carry-over from previous sample. If column reuse is desired store the column in 10-20% ethanol at +4-8°C.

No, FabRICATOR Z only digests mouse IgG2a (….CPAPNLLG / GPSVF.. ) and IgG3 (…CPAPNILG / GPSVF…) at one specific site below the hinge. If Fab fragments are an option, we recommend our FabULOUS enzyme that digest mouse IgG1 above the hinge. FabULOUS requires light reducing conditions for optimal activity. If strong reducing conditions are used, this may likely cause reduction of the interchain disulfides.

It is possible to elute the Fc fragments from the CaptureSelect column using a low pH buffer, for example a 0.1M Glycine buffer pH=3.0. The pH must immediately after elution be adjusted to neutral pH by adding 0.1x elution volume of 1M Tris pH=8.0.

GinigsKHAN®

Yes. GingisKHAN is provided lyophilized. After reconstitution, the enzyme can be used for up to 4 different antibodies. The digestion is performed in solution and you can prepare Fab fragments from 4 x 0.5 mg human IgG1. The purification step is done with Capture Select columns and 4 columns are provided in the kit.

Yes, GingisKHAN should be able to digest a Fc fusion protein if you have not fused the protein too close to the cleavage site and the Fc-part is from a human IgG1. GingisKHAN digests human IgG1 just above the hinge (…KSCDK / THTCPPCP…). If there are exposed Lysines in the fusion part, digestion might occur there as well.

We recommend using the 10x reducing agent provided with GingisKHAN which has an optimized pH to provide full enzymatic activity without affecting the disulphide bridges between the light chain and Fd region of the heavy chain, keeping the Fab intact. If other reducing agent is used there is a risk for non-optimal reaction conditions. It is important to use freshly prepared Reducing Agent (max storage 6h) for guaranteed activity of GinigsKHAN.

No, GingisKHAN is a general protease that with the recommended reaction conditions, 1 hour with light reducing conditions, digests human IgG1 at one specific site (…KSCDK/THTCPPCP…) above the hinge, generating Fab and Fc.

No. GingisKHAN is a protease that digests at exposed Lysines with no secondary structure restrictions. At the recommended reaction conditions, GingisKHAN digestion above the hinge has only been confirmed on human IgG1 with the exposed lysine above the hinge, (…KSCDK / THTCPPCP…). No digestion has been confirmed on other subclasses of human IgG except for several digestion sites in human IgG3.

Genovis provides a GingisKHAN Fab kit containing a specific Capture Select CH1 resin for further purification of the Fab. See this page for more information.

The enzyme is a cysteine protease that can be inhibited by alkylating agents such as iodoacetamide. There are also several other known inhibitors to this enzyme, like KYT-36.

FabALACTICA (IgdE) and GingisKHAN (Kgp) are both cysteine proteases that digest IgG1 above the hinge to generate intact Fab and Fc fragments. FabALACTICA is specific for human IgG1 and digests at a specific site (…KSCDKT / HTCPPCP…) with overnight incubation without the need for reducing conditions. GingisKHAN is a general protease that with the recommended reaction conditions, 1 hour with light reducing conditions, digests human IgG1 at a specific site (…KSCDK/THTCPPCP…).

FabULOUS

Yes. There is the possibility to exchange the CaptureSelect LC-kappa (mur) columns to columns containing CaptureSelect LC-lambda (mouse). This resin is specific for mouse IgG. Please contact support@genovis.com if this is of interest.

FabULOUS enzyme reaction is inhibited with iodoacetamide, iodo acetic acid or lowering pH below 3.

Depending on what reducing agent and what concentration you use you can obtain intact Fab and not reduce the interchain disulfide bond. The light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC) will not dissociate under native conditions due to hydrogen/hydrophobic forces. Before you analyze your samples with SDS-PAGE you must remove the cysteine otherwise the Fab will be reduced to Fd and LC during sample preparation for the SDS-PAGE. This can be done by a simple buffer exchange.

Yes, FabULOUS should be able to digest a Fc fusion protein as long as you have not fused the protein too close to the cleavage site. FabULOUS digests human IgG1 just above the hinge (…KTHT / CPPCP…).

No, FabULOUS Fab kit contains CaptureSelect LC-kappa (mur) spin columns with selective affinity for murine LC-kappa. If you need to generate pure Fab from human IgG1 you can use either FabALACTICA Fab Kit or GingisKHAN Fab Kit. If you have a different subclass of human IgG, please contact support@genovis.com for guidance.

Yes, FabULOUS requires reduced condition for activity and reaction is performed in the presence of 1-5 mM DTT or TCEP at neutral pH.

Yes, but a longer incubation time is needed.

FabULOUS is a cysteine protease that digests IgG in the hinge region. A primary digestion site for human IgG1 is above the hinge (…KTHT / CPPCP…). The enzyme is also active on human IgG2 and IgG3, digestion site not determined but Fab and Fc is generated. FabULOUS digests human IgG4 primarily at a site below the hinge using significantly longer incubation, generating Fab’ due to the reducing conditions. The possibility of other, secondary digestions sites is antibody dependent

IgASAP

There is no known enzyme that targets IgA2-only since the amino acids in the hinge regions of IgA2 is present also in IgA1. However, IgASAP Sub1 will digest IgA1-only.

IgASAP Sub1 specifically targets IgA1 and exhibits a faster reaction time (1 hour) compared to IgASAP Sub1+2 (16-18 hours). The cleavage site of IgASAP Sub1+2 is located six amino acids above that of IgASAP Sub1, resulting in the absence of potentially O-glycosylated residues on the Fab fragments. This characteristic can be advantageous in certain cases.

The enzyme is active at pH 6.5 to 8.0, tolerates up to 300 mM NaCl, and does not require reducing conditions or co-factors for activity. PBS and TBS buffers are both compatible. Optimization may be required if buffers other than the recommended are used.

The optimal activity is at 37°C, but the digestion can also be performed at room temperature using a prolonged incubation time.

IgASAP Sub1 may digest IgA1 from other primate species with similar hinge sequences, but this has not been tested. IgASAP Sub1 does not digest IgA2.

IgMBRAZOR

Yes, IgMBRAZOR and FabRICATOR can be used in combination.

Yes, IgMBRAZOR and PNGase F can be used in combination if the reaction is performed under non-denaturing conditions. However, for complete deglycosylation of IgM using PNGase F denaturing conditions may be required and it is then recommended to perform the IgMBRAZOR digestion prior the PNGase F deglycosylation.

It is possible to use IgMBRAZOR with low concentrations of IgM. However, this will lead to a decreased reaction rate, so for IgM concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL it is recommended to increase the amount of added enzyme and/or increase the incubation time. There is no risk of overdigestion and the incubation time can be prolonged to overnight if necessary.

The enzyme is active at pH 5.5 to 9.0, tolerates up to 300 mM NaCl, and does not require reducing conditions or co-factors for activity. PBS and TBS buffers are both compatible. Optimization may be required if buffers other than the recommended are used.

IgM from some species of monkey may also be digested by IgMBRAZOR.

Fusion Protein Digestion


GlySERIAS

If you have a technical question, please contact us.

Antibody Conjugation


GlyCLICK®

GlyCLICK is available in kit formats with AlexaFluor®488, AlexaFluor®555, AlexaFluor®647 or in the Azide Activation kit format for conjugation of a label of choice. With the fluorescent label being alkyne-modified (carrying for example DIBO, DBCO or BCN) it is possible to combine it with the GlyCLICK azide activation kit.

The GlyCLICK technology can be used to conjugate IgG with Desferrioxamine (DFO) using the GlyCLICK DFO kit. The DFO is a chelating agent for radiolabeling with the radioisotope Zirconium-89 (89Zr) for PET-imaging. The Azide Activation kit can be used to conjugate a chelator of choice if it is alkyne-modified (carrying for example DIBO, DBCO or BCN) to be compatible with the click chemistry.

Problems can arise from freezing of the conjugates. We cannot guarantee the quality after freezing and therefore recommend storage at +4°C.

The GlyCLICK 250 ug kit is optimized for 250 ug of IgG as a starting material. We do not recommend using less than 100 ug of starting material in a minimum of 100µL to achieve proper end-over-end mixing on the GlycINATOR columns. Please contact support@genovis.com for assistance if you want to process smaller amounts then 100µg.

The stability of azide activated material varies depending on the antibody and if stabilizing agents have been added. In our labs we have stored azide activated antibodies in TBS buffer without any additives at +4°C for over two years. The azide activation was still OK, and the click reaction generated antibodies with DOL=2. If azide is added as a preservative during long-term storage, it must be removed prior to click reaction.

The final step of GlyCLICK labeling kit is based on a copper free click reaction (SPAAC) and it is a strain promoted reaction between an azide and an alkyne-carrying label. As the name indicates the reaction occurs spontaneously due to the strained bond angles. The use of this click reaction that forms stable conjugates, allows you to freely choose label or payload to combine with your IgG as long as it is alkyne-functionalized. Several alkyne-carrying labels are commercially available with cyclooctyne structures such as DIBO, DBCO or BCN.

All the steps (deglycosylation, azide activation and click reaction) in GlyCLICK are highly efficient. Normally, all molecules are conjugated when using GlyCLICK, resulting in DOL=2. On the application page we have shown by MS-analysis that all molecules have been conjugated and there is no remaining un-conjugated material.

Characterization using LC-MS will give a complete and clear picture of mass shift associated with successful conjugation if the antibody is analyzed reduced or fragmented. LC or LC-MS analysis of HC from a reduced sample or scFc fragments generated by FabRICATOR digestion provides distinct elution peaks for conjugated scFc or mass shifts corresponding to the degree of labelling (DOL) following conjugation. On the application page you can see an example of such analysis. Analysis of fluorescently labeled antibodies can also be performed by absorbance measurements and calculate the DOL using the Extinction coefficient for the antibody and the label and the correction factor for the label.

TransGLYCIT

Unfortunately no, the enzyme requires trimming of the Fc-glycan using GlycINATOR to enable access to the core fucose substrate.

Yes, the transglycosylation reaction can be performed on all subclasses of human IgG. The reaction is somewhat slower on IgG2 and longer incubation times may be necessary to obtain over 95% transglycosylation.

GlycINATOR is an IgG specific endoglycosidase that hydrolyzes complex, hybrid and high mannonse type glycans on the conserved Fc site on IgG.

No, TransGLYCIT is based on IgG specific enzymes and will only transglycosylate IgG.

The TransGLYCIT platform is developed for transglycosylation of human IgG.

Proteomics


GingisREX®

No, GingisREX is inhibited by GdHCl even in low concentrations. This chaotrope should be avoided.

The digestion time is affected by many factors like the enzyme to sample ratio, pH of the digestion reaction, and the sample characteristics. The reaction time needs to be optimized for each specific case.

Yes, cysteine is required for both activity and specificity of the GingisREX enzyme.

Glycan Profiling


OmniGLYZOR

No, it is not recommended. We can only guarantee optimal performance for one-time use.

No, both N- and O-glycans are trimmed by the exoglycosidases present in OmniGLYZOR and do not longer represent the structures found on the intact glycoprotein substrate.

OmniGLYZOR hydrolyzes the amide bond between the polypeptide asparagine and the innermost GlcNAc of all mammalian asparagine-linked complex, hybrid, or high mannose oligosaccharides. It does not remove N-glycans with α1-3 core fucosylation.

PNGase F

Yes! Contact us at info@genovis.com

No, it is not recommended. We can only guarantee optimal performance for one-time use.

The columns are recommended to be used for deglycosylation at native conditions only.

PNGase F Immobilized hydrolyzes the amide bond between the polypeptide asparagine and the innermost GlcNAc of all mammalian asparagine-linked complex, hybrid, or high mannose oligosaccharides. It does not remove N-glycans with α1-3 core fucosylation.

The recommended buffer for best performance of the column is TBS buffer at pH 8.6. Other buffers with neutral pH containing 0.15 M NaCl can also be used but optimization may then be required.

OpeRATOR®

OpeRATOR is a metalloprotease and as such highly sensitive to chelating agents such as EDTA. Concentrations >5mM lead to complete inhibition of the enzyme. OpeRATOR activity is also moderately inhibited by ZnCl2.

Yes, the enzymes work in combination and can be used to desialylate and digest an O-glycosylated protein.

The activity of OpeRATOR is significantly decreased in the presence of sialic acids. We recommend using SialEXO to remove the sialic acids. If this is not an option, then we suggest trying to digest both with and without SialEXO to evaluate the impact for your specific samples and requirements.

No, the enzyme recognizes mucin type glycosylation with an inner GalNAc linked to a hexose sugar.

The relative abundance and site occupancy of O-glycosylation may vary a lot in a glycoprotein sample, and this will result in the generation of peptides with variable sizes. In some cases, the peptides contain more than one O-glycan, i.e. OpeRATOR does not digest at every site in every molecule. However, the missed digestion sites differ from molecule to molecule, and the compiled data will provide valuable information on the O-glycosylated sites.

If digestion is insufficient, it could be caused by the O-glycans having a sterically inaccessible location on the sample that the enzyme cannot reach. In such cases, we recommend trying the following workflow: reduction, denaturation, carboxymethylation, rebuffering, and then digestion with SialEXO and OpeRATOR.

Yes, this workflow enables MS/MS of O-glycosylated peptides with removed O-glycans.

ImpaRATOR

ImpaRATOR is a metalloprotease and thereby sensitive to chelating agents such as EDTA. Concentrations > 1 mM EDTA results in complete inhibition of the enzyme. In addition, the ImpaRATOR activity is inhibited by reducing agents and detergents.

Insufficient digestion during non-denaturing conditions can be caused by O-glycosylation sites within the glycoprotein inaccessible to the enzyme. In such cases, we recommend trying the following workflow: reduction, denaturation, carboxymethylation, buffer-exchange, and then digestion with ImpaRATOR. If detergent is added, make sure to include a detergent removal step prior ImpaRATOR digestion.

ImpaRATOR has a broad activity towards different O-glycan structures; however, the enzyme has limited activity towards sites with two adjacent O-glycosylated Ser/Thr residues. For complete information about O-glycan sites in glycoprotein substrates containing several sites with two adjacent O-glycosylated Ser/Thr residues, OpeRATOR may be a better option.

OglyZOR®

No, OglyZOR recognizes the core 1 disaccharide HexNAcHex (or GalNAcGal) and to some extend also the core 3 disaccharide HexNAc(2) (or GalNAcGlcNAc).

Yes, this workflow enables MS/MS of O-glycosylated peptides with removed O-glycans.

OglyZOR only works on desialylated O-glycans therefore is a sialidase (SialEXO) included with the product. SialEXO is not O-glycan specific and will therefore desialylate any N-glycans that are present.

Yes, we have performed successful experiments with OglyZOR, SialEXO and PNGaseF in the same reaction under native conditions O/N at pH ~7.0.  If denaturing reaction conditions are required for PNGaseF, the reaction with OglyZOR and SialEXO needs to be performed first under native conditions, then add PNGaseF and the required buffer.

SialEXO®

Yes, SialEXO can be incubated together with OpeRATOR and/or OglyZOR in 20 mM Tris pH 6.8.

Yes, SialEXO contains a 6x His-tag.

Yes, you can. All three enzymes perform well in the same reaction buffer (20 mM Tris pH 6.8). There is no need to increase incubation time when combining the enzymes.

Yes, SialEXO displays activity on sialic acids with α2-3, α2-6 and α2-8 linked bonds of both N- and O-glycans.

No, SialEXO works both on glycoproteins in native conditions but can also be used on denatured proteins after buffer exchange.

Yes, both enzymes are active under native conditions, preferably use 20 mM Tris pH 7. If denaturing reaction conditions are required for PNGaseF, the reaction with SialEXO needs to be performed first under native conditions, then add PNGaseF and the required buffer.

FucosEXO

If you have a technical question, please contact us.

GalactEXO

No. Branching fucose linked to the same residue as the β-galactose inhibits GalactEXO activity and needs to be removed prior to GalactEXO treatment. The FucosEXO enzyme can be used for hydrolysis of α1-2, α1-3 and α1-4 linked fucose.

Yes, both beta1-3 linked galactose on O-glycans and beta1-4 galactose on N-glycans are hydrolyzed by GalactEXO.

For most substrates such as antibodies or Fc-fusion proteins a 2 h incubation results in hydrolysis of over 95% of the present galactose. More complex substrates with high degree of galactosylation may require longer incubation times.

Yes, you can. All three enzymes perform well in the same reaction buffer (20 mM Tris pH 6.8). There is no need to increase incubation time when combining the enzymes.

GalNacEXO

If you have a technical question, please contact us.

GlycOCATCH®

The OpeRATOR enzyme digests O-glycosylated proteins N-terminally to the serine (S) and threonine (T) glycosylation sites. OpeRATOR therefore facilitates mapping of O-glycosylation sites by LC-MS and as the digested products no longer bind to the GlycOCATCH resin, elution and sample preparation can be achieved in a single step. However, this requires the O-glycosylation sites to be spaced closely together for the OpeRATOR digestion to yield peptides of a size suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS.

Yes. IMPORTANT! Before you load your sample make sure that the protease in solution is inactivated and that the pH, buffer, chaotrope and NaCl concentrations are within the recommended ranges according to the instructions.

No, GlycOCATCH is designed to bind specifically to mucin type (core 1) O-glycosylated proteins and peptides. The performance is significantly enhanced by removal of sialic acids using SialEXO.

No, when the glycoprotein is digested with OpeRATOR, the binding capacity of GlycOCATCH is lost.

Antibody Deglycosylation


GlycINATOR®

We can only guarantee optimal deglycosylation for one-time use. We do not have a cleaning or regeneration protocol to provide. However, depending on the antibody and the following application the column can be reused. We do not recommend using with different antibodies due to the risk for contamination of carry-over from previous sample. If column reuse is desired store the column in 10-20% ethanol at +4-8°C.

Yes, the GlycINATOR enzyme binds specifically to the Fc region and therefore will not deglycosylate N-linked glycans in the Fab region.

Typically, GlycINATOR is the first choice since it displays enzymatic activity on all glycoforms present on IgG, including complex type, high mannose, bisected and hybrid type glycans. IgGZERO does not hydrolyze high mannose glycans. IgGZERO deglycosylates some species faster as compared to GlycINATOR, for example goat IgG.

In both products the enzyme is immobilized on agarose beads for IgG-specific hydrolysis of the Fc glycans to the innermost GlcNAc. IgGZERO Immobilized contains IgGZERO (EndoS) and GlycINATOR Immobilized contains GlycINATOR (EndoS2). The GlycINATOR enzyme has much higher enzymatic activity for high mannose and some bisected and hybrid glycans that can occur on mAbs.

IgGZERO (EndoS) and GlycINATOR (EndoS2) are both IgG-specific endoglycosidases that hydrolyses Fc glycans to the innermost GlcNAc. The GlycINATOR enzyme has a broader substrate selectivity and therefore much higher enzymatic activity on high mannose and some bisected and hybrid glycans that can occur on mAbs. IgGZERO deglycosylates some species faster as compared to GlycINATOR, for example goat IgG.

IgGZERO®

Yes, the IgGZERO enzyme is compatible with most commonly used buffers with pH ranging from 6.0 to 8.0, but the reaction conditions might need to be optimized to ensure optimal deglycosylation.

Yes, many buffers are compatible with IgGZERO. Please keep pH close to neutral.

First you could increase incubation time and increase temperature to 37°C. One explanation for incomplete deglycosylation with IgGZERO Immobilized could be that the antibody has higher amounts of high mannose, hybrid glycans or bisected glycans. For these glycans IgGZERO has low or no activity. High mannose glycans are particularly resistant to digestion recommend you try our other endoglycosidase GlycINATOR (EndoS2). This enzyme has much higher activity on these types of glycans sometimes seen in mAbs.

In both products the enzyme is immobilized on agarose beads for IgG-specific hydrolysis of the Fc glycans to the innermost GlcNAc. IgGZERO Immobilized contains IgGZERO (EndoS) and GlycINATOR Immobilized contains GlycINATOR (EndoS2). The GlycINATOR enzyme has much higher enzymatic activity for high mannose and some bisected and hybrid glycans that can occur on mAbs.

Typically, GlycINATOR is the first choice since it displays enzymatic activity on all glycoforms present on IgG, including complex type, high mannose, bisected and hybrid type glycans. IgGZERO does not hydrolyze high mannose glycans. IgGZERO deglycosylates some species faster as compared to GlycINATOR, for example goat IgG.

IgGZERO (EndoS) and GlycINATOR (EndoS2) are both IgG-specific endoglycosidases that hydrolyses Fc glycans to the innermost GlcNAc. The GlycINATOR enzyme has a broader substrate selectivity and therefore much higher enzymatic activity on high mannose and some bisected and hybrid glycans that can occur on mAbs. IgGZERO deglycosylates some species faster as compared to GlycINATOR, for example goat IgG.

Research Antibodies


Anti-FabRICATOR®

Anti-FabRICATOR® Z

If you have a technical question, please contact us.

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